Castillo Callesen posted an update 2 weeks, 3 days ago
Lightning strokes, which total 200 kA or 300 kV, cause hazards for the equipment or location, so lightning protection is vital for operation.
Let us commence with the initial note in regards to what is lightning and why lightning protection can be so important. Principle phenomenon behind lightning is charges accumulated through the cloud as well as the earth are equal and opposite. This forms a non-uniform potential gradient surface in the air. In the event the gradient is larger compared to potential from the surface, the breakdown occurs as well as a "streamer" flows through the cloud on the earth.
A primary stroke takes place when the lightning hits the energy systems directly that the immense potential will cause destruction from the equipment or perhaps the facility. As opposed, an indirect stroke occurs from the lightning discharges in the proximity in the power line or from electrostatic discharge about the conductor due to charged clouds.
The key power system elements requiring lightning protection are power feeds, home alarm systems, telephone lines, data and control systems and RF cables.
Strategies to Lightning Protection. The rolling sphere method is used for identifying the complete positioning of the lightning and surge protection devices close to the equipment under operation.
Protection from the power line against direct strokes is through a ground wire or protector tube. The former produces electrostatic screening, which is afflicted with the capacitances in the cloud to line as well as the line to ground. Rogues forms an arc between the electrodes, causing gas deionisation.
Rooftop/Frame Protection. It is interesting to make note of the building and rooftop frame or cladding is preferably metal than insulation type.
Installation of a finial towards the top of the power tower really should have the very least distance of 1.5 m above the highest antenna or lights. This type of rooftop or building frame consists of reinforced steel for defense purpose.
Wooden towers without downconductors could potentially cause a hearth hazard, while they route the incoming charges to ground. In principal, for non-metallic roofs, proper downconductors must be installed at the appropriate location and height.
Device Protection. Antenna lightning protection is provided through spark gap, the gas discharge tube and quad-wavelength shorted stub. The very first method uses ball points in order that if the strike occurs, high potential forms together along with the ground. The second method causes gas deionisation through arc formation involving the electrodes. The past method works on the coax transmission line through the transmission line to ensure system bandwidth is narrow.
A lightning arrester is a device offering lightning protection by regulating spark gaps. The product classification may cover anything from rod gap, horn gap and valve type to metal oxide lightning arresters.
Earthing and Bonding Solutions. Now let us discuss how earthing and bonding solutions for lightning protection needs to be afforded. Design for earth rods, terminals or clamps ought to be in such a way to route the incoming transients to earth to minimise step and touch potentials. The geometric measurements chosen should conform to the IEEE and NFPA standards. Any earthing system needs to have proper bonding, as ground potential rise cannot be compensated. Again, the volume of interconnects and spacing needs to be designed per the lightning standards.
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